Hiv smitter kun gennem blod, skedesekret, sædvæske, præsperm og modermælk. Disse kropsvæsker indeholder så koncentrerede mængder af hiv-virus, at de kan overføre smitte.
Hiv skal direkte ind i blodbanen, for at der kan ske overførsel af smitte. Det kan ske ved at:
Dyrke sex uden kondom. Hiv kan dermed smitte gennem slimhinderne, f.eks. i endetarmen, skeden, penis og munden.
Dele sprøjte/kanyle med en Hiv-smittet.
Smitten overføres fra mor til barn under fødslen.
Den Hiv-smittede mor ammer sit barn.
I 1986 begyndte man i Danmark at undersøge donorblod for Hiv. Derfor skal du ikke være nervøs for, at blive smittet med Hiv, hvis du skal have en blodtransfusion.
Hiv smitter ikke ved almindelig social kontakt. Så du kan roligt kramme og knuse en person med hiv. Du kan også kysse en person med hiv, da du ikke bliver smittet gennem spyt. Drikke af samme glas/krus, dele toilet og benytte offentlige svømmehaller og saunaer. Hiv smitter ikke gennem sved og tårer.
Du skal heller ikke være bange for, at blive smittet med hiv gennem insekter, f.eks. myg, hvepse eller bier – det kan ikke lade sig gøre.
How is HIV transmitted?
A person who has HIV carries the virus in certain body fluids, including blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. The virus can be transmitted only if such HIV-infected fluids enter the bloodstream of another person. This kind of direct entry can occur
(1) through the linings of the vagina, rectum, mouth, and the opening at the tip of the penis; (2) through intravenous injection with a syringe; or (3) through a break in the skin, such as a cut or sore.
Usually, HIV is transmitted through:
Unprotected sexual intercourse (either vaginal or anal) with someone who has HIV. Women are at greater risk of HIV infection through vaginal sex than men, although the virus can also be transmitted from women to men. Anal sex (whether male-male or male-female) poses a high risk mainly to the receptive partner, because the lining of the anus and rectum is extremely thin and is filled with small blood vessels that can be easily injured during intercourse.
Unprotected oral sex with someone who has HIV. There are far fewer cases of HIV transmission attributed to oral sex than to either vaginal or anal intercourse, but oral-genital contact poses a clear risk of HIV infection, particularly when ejaculation occurs in the mouth. This risk goes up when either partner has cuts or sores, such as those caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), recent tooth-brushing, or canker sores, which can allow the virus to enter the bloodstream.
Sharing needles or syringes with someone who is HIV infected. Laboratory studies show that infectious HIV can survive in used syringes for a month or more. That's why people who inject drugs should never reuse or share syringes, water, or drug preparation equipment. This includes needles or syringes used to inject illegal drugs such as heroin, as well as steroids. Other types of needles, such as those used for body piercing and tattoos, can also carry HIV.
Infection during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast-feeding (mother-to-infant transmission). Any woman who is pregnant or considering becoming pregnant and thinks she may have been exposed to HIV - even if the exposure occurred years ago should seek testing and counseling. Those who test positive can get drugs to prevent HIV from being passed on to a fetus or infant, and they are counseled not to breast-feed.
HIV is not an easy virus to pass from one person to another. It is not transmitted through food or air (for instance, by coughing or sneezing). There has never been a case where a person was infected by a household member, relative, coworker, or friend through casual or everyday contact such as sharing eating utensils or bathroom facilities, or through hugging or kissing. (Most scientists agree that while HIV transmission through deep or prolonged "French" kissing may be possible, it would be extremely unlikely.) Sweat, tears, vomit, feces, and urine do contain HIV, but have not been reported to transmit the disease (apart from two cases involving transmission from fecal matter via cut skin). Mosquitoes, fleas, and other insects do not transmit HIV.